Condition - Asthma

Asthma is a disorder that causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow, resulting into wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. While asthma is classified based on severity, at the moment there is no clear method for classifying different subgroups of asthma beyond this system.

Signs and Symptoms

Its symptoms include:

  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Chest tightness
  • Shortness of breath

Causes

There could be many reasons of asthma including:

  • Animals (pet hair or dander)
  • Dust
  • Changes in weather
  • Mold
  • Pollen
  • Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
  • Tobacco smoking

Treatment

The objective of asthma treatment is to control airway swelling. There are two basic kinds of medication for treating asthma:

  • Control drugs to prevent attacks
  • Quick-relief (rescue) drugs for use during attacks

Your doctor may suggest you an inhaler containing drugs to provide immediate relief. The main thing is that you would have to check for the elements that trigger asthma. Keep yourself away from those elements.

Condition - Chronic obstructive pulmonary

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the most common lung diseases today. It makes it difficult for the person to breathe. There are two major forms of COPD:

  • Chronic bronchitis, which involves a long-term cough with mucus
  • Emphysema, which involves destruction of the lungs over time

Signs and symptoms

Its major symptoms include:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Cough, with or without mucus
  • Many respiratory infections
  • Wheezing
  • Trouble catching one’s breath

Causes

Its major causes are:

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace
  • Exposure to heavy amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution
  • Frequent use of cooking fire without proper ventilation
Condition - Emphysema

Emphysema is a long-term, progressive disease of lungs that primarily causes shortness of breath. In people with emphysema, the tissues necessary to support the physical shape and function of the lungs are destroyed.

Emphysema is known as an obstructive lung disease because airflow on exhalation is slowed or stopped because over-inflated alveoli do not exchange gases.

Signs and symptoms

The most common symptoms of emphysema include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough
  • Tolerance for exercise decreases
  • Barrel chest

Causes

The causes of emphysema include:

  • Cigarette smoking
  • Immune cells in the lung
  • Air pollution
  • Abnormal airway reactivity
  • Older age

Treatment

Treatment for emphysema can take many forms.

  • Quit smoking – Cigarette smoking is known to be the biggest cause of emphysema. So, any treatment should be accompanied with a no to smoking approach.
  • Bronchodilating medications - These medications, which cause the air passages to open more fully and allow better air exchange, are usually the first medications that a doctor will prescribe for emphysema.
  • Steroid medications
  • Antibiotics
  • Oxygen therapy
Condition - Pulmonary Edema

Pulmonary Edema refers to fluid retention in lungs and is often caused by congestive heart failure. In this condition, the heart is not able to pump blood to the body efficiently; it can back up into the veins that take blood through the lungs to the left side of the heart. Congestive heart failure that leads to pulmonary edema may be caused by:

  • Heart attack, or any disease of the heart that weakens or stiffens the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
  • Leaking or narrowed heart valves (mitral or aortic valves)
  • Sudden, severe high blood pressure (hypertension)

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms of pulmonary edema include:

  • Coughing up blood or bloody forth
  • Difficulty in breathing when lying down
  • Inability to speak in full sentences
  • Grunting, gurgling, or wheezing sounds while breathing

Causes

The possible causes of pulmonary edema are:

  • Heart attack
  • Leaking or narrowed heart valves
  • Sudden, severe high blood pressure
  • Certain medications
  • Major injury
  • Kidney failure
  • High altitude exposure

Treatment

Pulmonary edema is generally treated in the emergency room of hospital, sometimes in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

  • Oxygen is supplied through face mask or tiny plastic tubes
  • Diuretics to remove excess fluids from the body
  • Medicines to strengthen the heart muscle, control the heartbeat, or ease pressure on the heart