Condition - Ovarian hypofunction

Ovarian hypofunction refers to reduced function of the ovaries. It also includes decreased production of hormones. This condition makes it difficult for a woman to get pregnant.

Signs and Symptoms

Women with ovarian hypofunction may experience symptoms of menopause, including:

  • Hot flashes
  • Irregular or absent periods
  • Mood swings
  • Night sweats
  • Vaginal dryness


Major causes of ovarian hypofunction include:

  • Genetic factors such as chromosome abnormalities
  • Certain autoimmune disorders
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy


Doctors use estrogen therapy which helps in relieving menstrual symptoms and prevents bone loss. However, it is also true it doesn’t increase your chances of becoming pregnant. A study shows that less than 1 in 10 women with ovarian hypofunction will be able to get pregnant. The chance of successfully getting pregnant increases to 50% when using a fertilized donor egg (an egg from another woman).

Condition - Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease refers to inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it leads to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. Sometimes this condition can lead to infertility in women. PID is generally classified by affected organs, the stage of the infection, and the organism(s) causing it.

Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of PID include:

  • Vaginal discharge which is foul smelling, itchy profuse and persistant
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Painful intercourse
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding
  • Fever
  • Cervical motion tenderness

Causes of PID

The major causes of PID are:

  • Repeated miscarriages
  • Repeated abortions
  • Giving birth in suboptimal conditions
  • Gynecological operations


As PID is difficult to diagnose and can cause serious health problems, it should be treated at the earliest. Your doctor would start your treatment when even he or she is not completely sure about PID.

  • Treatment is given in form of anti-biotic and anti-inflammatory drugs for 14-21days. If condition doesn't improve, you may need to undergo further tests or treatment. You may be given injections of antibiotics.
  • If your PID is very severe you will feel very ill and will need to go to hospital. If you have a pelvic abscess (a collection of infected fluid, or pus, in your lower abdomen), you may need an operation to drain the abscess and clear the affected area.
Condition - Placenta Praevia

Placenta Praevia is a condition in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and obstructs its opening to the cervix. This problem occurs during pregnancy and is very common. Generally, placenta lies in the lowest part of the womb but as the pregnancy continues, the placenta moves to the top of the womb. If it doesn't change its position, the condition is known as placenta praevia. The biggest threat in placenta praevia is sudden bleeding that can be life threatening to the mother and baby. There are three types of placenta praevia:

  • Marginal – The placenta is next to cervix but doesn't cover the opening.
  • Partial – The placenta covers part of the cervical opening.
  • Complete – The placenta covers all of the opening to cervix.

Signs & Symptoms

The foremost symptom of placenta praevia is sudden bleeding from the vagina during pregnancy. However, some women may experience cramps too. Bleeding often starts near the end of the second trimester or beginning of the third trimester. Your health care provider may diagnose this condition using a pregnancy ultrasound.


According to a study, placenta praevia occurs in 1 out of 200 pregnancies. This condition is common in women with:

  • Abnormally shaped uterus
  • Many previous pregnancies
  • Multiple pregnancies
  • Scarring on the lining of the uterus, due to history of surgery, C-section, previous pregnancy, or abortion


The treatment of placenta praevia actually depends on the type of placenta praevia and the pregnancy stage. It is also true that almost all women with placenta praevia partial or complete need a C-section.

  • If the placenta is covering a part of the cervix, your doctor may suggest limiting your activities, bed rest, and pelvic rest
  • Blood transfusions
  • Medicines to prevent early labor
  • Medicines till pregnancy continuation to at least 36 weeks
  • Steroid shots to help the baby's lungs mature
Condition - Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is a medical condition during pregnancy in which a pregnant woman develops high blood pressure and protein in the urine. This condition generally occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. This high blood pressure during pregnancy can damage the maternal endothelium, kidneys, and liver. This is why it is important for you to visit your health care provider more frequently in this condition to keep a constant check on your blood pressure.

Signs and Symptoms

The women with preeclampsia may experience following symptoms:

  • Swelling of hands and face/eyes
  • Sudden weight gain over 2-3 days
  • Headache that does not go away
  • Pain below the ribs, on right side
  • Decreased urine output
  • Irritability
  • Blurred vision, seeing flashing lights or spots


The exact cause of preeclampsia is still unknown. Possible cases are:

  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Blood vessel problems
  • Your diet
  • Your genes
  • First pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Multiple pregnancy
  • Pregnancy after the age of 35
  • History of diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney disease


In medical books, the only way to treat preeclampsia is to deliver the baby. If your baby is developed enough (generally 37 weeks or later), your doctor may recommend delivering your baby so the preeclampsia does not get worse.

If your baby is not fully developed and it is dangerous to deliver, your doctor will suggest few things to ensure a healthy chance of surviving after delivery.

  • Bed rest, lying on your left side most or all of the time
  • Drinking plenty of water
  • Eating less salt
  • Frequent visits to doctor
  • Medicines to lower your blood pressure and keep the growth of baby

The baby must be delivered, if there are signs of severe preeclampsia, including:

  • Severe preeclampsia can do heavy damage to mother
  • Pain in the belly area
  • Seizures or changes in mental function
  • Fluid in the mother's lungs (pulmonary edema)
  • Low platelet count or bleeding
  • Low urine output
  • Abnormal liver function test results
  • Signs that your baby is not growing well or not getting enough blood and oxygen